El Nino’s effects will be disastrous for Bangladesh.

Over the past few years, there has been unusual weather behaviour worldwide. The picture of rain and greenery has appeared on the scorching desert dunes, where there is a scarcity of water. Conversely, Europe, which experiences frigid weather for much of the year, presents a different image. Social media users have been sharing a photo of a road signal lamp melting in the UK due to high temperatures. Unpredictable floods and forest fires are clear indicators that the global climate problem is affecting everyone. Bangladesh, a country on the Bay of Bengal coast, is not immune to the negative consequences of climate change. Because of our country’s temperate climate, there is less of a change in temperature between winter and summer. Unlike last year, when the heat was intense throughout the year, this year’s start of summer surpassed the previous year’s highest temperature record.

The long-term impacts of the heat wave were evident at the start of this year’s heat wave. 2024 will be the warmest year on record, according to meteorologists. The monsoon has the biggest impact on Bangladesh’s climate. In this area, “La Nino” events—sea surface temperatures below the mean ocean temperature—usually have a bigger impact. This results in heavy rains and strong monsoonal winds. However, the event this year will be remarkably unique. In addition to climate change, Bangladesh also experiences the effects of El Nino. In the summer and in the winter, it’s dry. India’s monsoon is arriving late. Meteorologists fear that El Nino’s influence could break the nation’s temperature record. Experts estimate that in 1975, the nation’s highest temperature ever could surpass 45.1 degrees and potentially reach 47 degrees.

A totally distinct natural event known as “El Nino” occurs every few years. In essence, it is the erratic behavior of the Pacific Ocean’s weather south of the equator. It describes extremely unfavourable weather conditions. When sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern Pacific Oceans rise above average, an El Nino occurs. This disrupts regular airflow across coastal regions. Conditions similar to El Niño often arise every two to seven years. This phenomenon persists for more than a year and a half. Floods, droughts, and other natural calamities are linked to El Niño. El Nino has a greater impact on developing nations like Bangladesh because of their reliance on fishing and agriculture.

For the past few years, Bangladeshi agriculture has been witnessing the effects of climate change. The previous year’s extreme heat caused a significant loss in rice cultivation. The nation’s agriculture has seen a number of challenges, such as leaf scorching, falling rice and other crops, and storm damage. The Directorate of Agricultural Extension reports that in the current fiscal year (2023–24), 50 lakh 40 thousand hectares of rabi season were planted with the borough in order to meet the target. The borough has set a production target of 2 crore 22 lakh metric tonnes. Additionally, there are 1 lakh 23 thousand hectares of pepper cultivation, 2 lakh 60 thousand onions, 77 thousand garlic, 6 lakh 29 thousand vegetables, 6 lakh 22 thousand pulses, and 3 lakh 23 thousand hectares of wheat. The objective has been attained. Analysts believe that we cannot meet the goal, even though the fiscal year is almost over. The market is already witnessing severe price rises for commodities and agricultural shortages.

The effects of El Nino extend beyond agricultural areas. As a result, there are more tidal waves, floods, and droughts throughout the nation. The National Strategy Paper on Internal Displacement Management states that natural disasters caused the displacement of around 4.7 million people in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2014. The 2019 half-yearly report reveals that natural disasters have displaced over 17 lakh individuals from 23 different districts across the nation. This took place mostly in different coastal districts. By 2050, there could be approximately 1.5 million displaced people in the country. Furthermore, the United Nations Children’s Agency (UNICEF reports that around two million children’s lives are in jeopardy. There’s also concern that climate change will lead to an increase in human trafficking cases, according to a report from the UNODC.

Environmentalists and students at Daffodil International University have expressed their concerns. According to Mahir Dayan, the planet has been going through a La Nina for the past three years, which has somewhat slowed down global warming. However, scientists predict that the temperature will rise in the upcoming years due to El Niño’s effect and the excess heat created globally. On the other hand, this remains unclear. The longtime chief of forecasting at the UK Met Office, Adam Scaife, said to reporters: “We are very close to a 1.5 percent increase in warming for the first time in history.” According to a forecast by the World Meteorological Organisation, for at least one year between 2022 and 2026, the yearly global surface temperature will be 1.5 degrees Celsius higher than pre-industrial levels. The organisation predicts that the hottest year will occur in at least one of the next five years, surpassing the record set in 2016.

According to the Climate Adaptation Plan, increasing climate spending is critical. If the wealthy nations fulfill their pledge to raise the climate fund, reducing the damage will be easier. Furthermore, we can implement electrical precautions and identify the regions most vulnerable to El Nino’s impact.  In addition to offering guidance and assistance to farmers, the agriculture department ought to be ready for such situations. El Nino’s effects on the country’s coastal regions are a result of climate change. The climate problem affects the environment, society, health, education, and economy. We should prioritize adaptation operations and accelerate ongoing climate change activities to deal with various undesirable events, including the devastating effects of El Nino.